Lack of Toxicity in Einkorn Gliadin

In 2006, the Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology released the results of a study which suggested the possibility of adding einkorn grain to the dietary options of celiac patients.  I was able to get a copy of the full study but cannot post it entirely because of copyright restrictions.  Instead, I have quoted the abstract and posted it below:

(For those who don’t know, the genetic classification of einkorn wheat is Triticum monococcum, which is an important detail as you read this post.)

Study Abstract

Lack of intestinal mucosal toxicity of Triticum monococcum in celiac disease patients

Cultivated Einkorn (Triticum monococcum)

Daniela Pizzuti1, Andrea Buda1, Anna D’Odorico1, Renata D’Incà1, Silvia Chiarelli2, Andrea Curioni3 and Diego Martines1

1 Department of Surgical and Gastroenterological Sciences, 2 Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, 3 Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Padua University, Italy

Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 2006; 41: 1305-1311

Objective. The treatment of celiac disease is based on lifelong withdrawal of foods containing gluten. Unfortunately, compliance with a gluten-free diet has proved poor in many patients (mainly due to its low palatability), emphasizing the need for cereal varieties that are not toxic for celiac patients. In evolutionary terms, Triticum monococcum is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of T. monococcum on small intestinal mucosa, using an in vitro organ culture system.

Material and methods. Distal duodenum biopsies of 12 treated celiac patients and 17 control subjects were cultured for 24h with T. aestivum (bread) gliadin (1mg/ml) or with T. monococcum gliadin (1mg/ml). Biopsies cultured with medium alone served as controls. Each biopsy was used for conventional histological examination and for immunohistochemical detection of CD3+intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and HLA-DR. Secreted cytokine protein interferon-γ (IFN–γ) was measured in the culture supernatant using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay.

Results. Significant morphological changes, HLA-DR overexpression in the crypt epithelium and an increased number of CD3+IELs, found after bread gliadin exposure, were not observed in celiac biopsies cultured with T. monococcum gliadin. In contrast, with bread gliadin, there was no significant IFN-γ response after culture with monococcum gliadin. Similarly, biopsies from normal controls did not respond to bread or monococcum gliadin stimulation.

Conclusions. These data show a lack of toxicity of T. monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients.

Considering the health benefits of einkorn grain compared with common bread wheat, and the seemingly “low palatability” of the gluten-free diet, this study is really creating a lot of excitement (and controversy) in the gluten-free community.

In the concluding paragraphs of the study, the researchers express their optimism about einkorn:

Taken together, these findings suggest that T. monococcum, like avenins (in oats), rice, and maize, which contain no homologous sequences to the 33-mer gliadin, might be tolerated by celiac patients, and could therefore be included in their diet, offering a distinct nutritional improvement.  T. monococcum has a higher protein and carotene content and a greater resistance to fungal disease and tolerance of salinity than durum or bread wheat.

One of my goals in researching ancient einkorn wheat, is to assemble a team of doctors and specialists who will conduct a clinical follow-up study about the possibilities of using einkorn as a food safe for celiacs.  I hope my readers who are interested in the same topic will support this research in any way they can.

Update: please read our more recent post about the possible reasons why einkorn is easier to digest than modern wheat.

22 thoughts on “Lack of Toxicity in Einkorn Gliadin

  1. Pingback: Einkorn: What wheat should be « Sound Viewpoints

    1. Stan Ness

      The article above is research done by another group. I’m working with some doctors to fund and conduct a separate but similar study.

  2. Jill

    I’m also wondering where to buy this wheat. I’m OK grinding it myself, if I can get ahold of the berries though, preferably, I’d like to buy the flour.


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  5. Jake

    Don’t be daft guys. Flour begins oxidising after grinding and is useless after 6 weeks. You want to get sick or something?

  6. MishiRN

    Very interesting…have you dont any follow up research since you wrote this article? Do you know if it has the same protein structure as traditional wheat? Curious if there would be any difeence in immune-mediated allergic responses between this and “traditional” wheat?

    1. Stan Ness

      Sadly, I’ve not had the funding or the time to do any follow-up research. Perhaps someday. From published studies I’ve read, the protein structure of einkorn is not the same as “traditional” wheat, but is also not entirely different.

    2. Larry f Kandarian

      Protein structure in Einkorn Gliadin is only wheat on our planet that is missing the GAMMA GLIADIN component, thus when the resultant Gluten is formed by combining the Gliadin with the Gluetinen protein molecules either in our mouths or in Risotto like dishes, soups, stews, breads, thatGluten differs from all other Glutinous grains. This is my simplistic view. Larry F Kandarian, Ceo

  7. Luca Zanardi

    Next May from 19 to 22 in San Diego at DDW 2012 (Digestive Disease Week) will be introduced for the first time in absolute the results of the last exsperimentation with einkorn on celiacs (in vivo), made in Italy.
    After May 23 I will be able to give more details on my blog:

    If you want to read something about my experience, baking with einkorn flour, look this page of my blog:

    Hoping to be helpful,

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  11. Aleesia

    My Husband and Best friend are diagnosed Celiac. Last night my I baked bread (which did rise!!) with Einkorn and my husband ate it nervously….but…. this morning still, no bad effects! No pain no vomiting, nothing!

  12. anne christopher

    Was recently introduced to Einkorn flour and wonder about gliacin in it. I am not gluten intolerant but gliacin intolerant. From what I’m seeing, Einkorn might have MORE gliacin than regular flour. Is that correct?
    Thank you in advance,
    Anne C

  13. Doug

    We buy einkorn berries from an organic grower in PA along with spelt and emmer. Einkorn is sorta the “hot” grain of late but it compares nicely with spelt and emmer – also considered ancient grains. The only real problem with Einkorn, the reason it is not more popular with growers, is that it has a very tough husk (as does spelt and emmer) and yet the grain itself is delicate. This means that during de-hulling (removing the husk) most of the grains are damaged. Not a problem if you’re going to mill the damaged grain to make flour but it makes it tough to sprout the grain because damaged grain is no longer viable or able to germinate. Sprouting is a process of fermentation that will help neutralize phytic acids and naturally interfere with gluten development. It’s really the only way one should eat grain because sprouting prepares grain for digestion. We know this because early agricultural communities such as the Egyptians, early Hebrews and early Christians were careful to sprout their grains – it’s what you do.

    1. Admin

      Doug, what you say is true. Because of that, our einkorn has about a 40-60% germination rate. The way we deal with that is using mostly sourdough. Sourdough does the same kind of thing as sprouting. It also prepares the grains for digestion and helps to neutralize phytic acid. So, that is an option as well.

  14. Shanon

    I have Hashimotos and been gluten free for over 3 years now. Ive become severely sensitive to so many foods. I get so sick when I eat. I recently spend a ton of money on a food sensitivity test which showed I can not have any grains not because of gluten but because of my reaction to gliadin. I know Einkorn has 14 chromosomes compared to modern hybridized wheat which has 42 chromosomes. Ive read it has lower levels of gluten. Does this mean lower levels of gliadin? Since this grain is the original wheat before being modified is it more tolerated by us? I haven’t been diagnosed celiac or anything. Im waiting on a GI Map test to come back because I have the worst tenderness behind my belly button. Ive eliminated the foods im sensitive to and in beginning to not feel severely exhausted after eating but im so hungry. Im considering this Einhorn grain because I have a mild reaction to gliadin and I just want to feel sustained and satisfied. Even when I would eat gluten free things I would feel so sick so maybe this isnt a good idea but I just feel if this grain is the original wheat before we tampered with it then just maybe my body will accept it. I dont know?

    1. Admin

      Hi Shanon, it’s very possible. The gluten in einkorn is very different from the gluten in modern wheat. Check out this study for more specifics. You are always welcome to order the 2.5lb bag just to try it and see.


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